Best Paint For Cars – Image via www.autorepair.ae
Best Paint For Cars – ADALBERTO GONZALEZ MAY be one of the best car painters in Northern California. He does not work in the shining-and-glowing fashion of the low-rider culture of Cali, and he rarely finds himself perfecting Italian exotic. Gonzalez, who goes by the nickname Coco, runs a paint room at Alameda Collision Repair, a high-quality store that fixes a little over 13 cars every day, six days a week. Painting panels, from simple sequences to something far, far worse is the last stop in car repair, which makes it an obstacle. What makes Gonzalez so good is he’s fast. He is an artist at removing plugs. But unlike most artists, if you can see the most vague clues of his work, he has made a mistake.
You think, big cries. An incoming car, Toyota Camry 2015, say, in Ruby Flare Pearl (red) that requires a Bondo’dan door sanded. You just go to the shelf and take down Toyota Ruby Flare Pearl 2015, click a tube into a wind rifle, and swoosh, you’re back on the road, is not it?
Not. The car company has put 50,000 to 60,000 colors of cars on the road, but even large stores like Alameda Collision Repair only have 70 or 80 colors on its shelves. Apparently Gonzalez is not only a fast painter, he is a fast shooter. “I get the closest one,” he said, “and then I match the colors.”
Wrapped in a plasticized jumpsuit and baseball cap Mickey Mouse, Gonzalez worked in a room with a closet size adjacent to a large ventilated room where he painted parts of it. Dozens of individual colors were in white plastic containers on the paint-covered shelves that flowed from floor to ceiling. Gonzalez pulled a plastic container from a wall mounted dispenser, arranged it on a scale, and began pouring colors off the shelf – following a basic recipe. The workbench was covered with a piece of meat paper taped with yellow ribbon; floors are paintings of Jackson Pollack that are mottled and unintentional.
When finished mixing, the color will still not be true.
After assembly, the car passes through a complex process of automated painting and industry. The so-called “body in white” – a complete car of steel-and-aluminum-and-sometimes-plastic-and-carbon-fiber-gets a dip of phosphate to clean it and then bathe in a short e-coat tank for electrophoretic coating, the resulting electric charge makes a gray mud stick to the car in a thin, homogeneous layer. It becomes the surface where everything else – the colors – will stick.
“After the e-coat we started to apply the things in the body repair shop we will try to imitate the colors,” said Mike Henry, an old color expert at PPG, the world’s largest paint and coating company. He’s been there for 35 years, but unlike most people in the world of color, he’s not a chemist – Henry got MFA in studio painting from the University of Miami.
The next coat is primer, or primer and paint. Chemistry varies, but all paint is basically a combination of pigments, which reflect and absorb light to give a certain color; solvents, which carry pigments to the surface; and binders, which make the pigments mingled. Pigments may also include materials such as silica that make metal or pearlescent flakes appear smoother or rougher. Such effects make “goniochromatic” paint-allowing the end result to look different from different angles. (Gonio is the Greek for “angle.”)
Then the paint robot sprayed it. “Atomization basically blows the liquid into the best possible particles,” says Henry. The cloud, sprayed onto the body of the car, gets a light electric charge to pull it to the target, reducing waste. “This is a fog attached to the car.” A hot “roasting cycle” heals the layer, and then the robotic machine from that line sprays another layer, a clear protective coat with all the same material except the pigment. The color of the car is not just the surface. It is a three-dimensional shell that breaks through the light and then reappears, completely changed.
When you have a car accident or dredge a car on a pillar in a parking garage, that’s what you’ve thrown away: a complex photonic line made by about four electrodeposition deposited electrodeposited layers.
Not that repaired by the workshop. A good store will apply several primary layers, clear layers, and colors, not to mention possible repair work including epoxy and resin to smooth the dent. Geometry, at the atomic level, which absorbs some wavelengths of light and reflects or refracts the others, may have nothing to do with the original.
But done right, they look the same.
LIGHT DOES NOT ONLY touch the top surface of the clear layer and bounce off to your eyes. Penetrates as a discrete intrusion of local electromagnetic fields called photons. You probably already know that photons can act like particles and waves; Their wavelength is their color, yes, but the interaction with the particles and the resin layers can change the wavelength and direction.
Black pigment particles absorb light, reducing the number of photons that swing back and reach one’s eyes. The white color, on the other hand, can belong to many multiple surface interactions as a function of pigments such as titanium dioxide, the more classic white-and-white stuff in almost every man-made color. These and other pigments also diffuse the light, extending or shortening the passing photon path.
Photons can reflect a surface, bouncing at an angle as they arrive. They can also get used to, departing with different trajectories. Both things happen when the light is about an object. But the surface can also reflect light, bend the path – when light seeps through an object. If the pigment particles embedded on the surface are approximately the same size or slightly larger than the inbound wavelength, different particles interact with different parts of the electric and magnetic field changes that make up the photons. Waves can interfere, both constructively and destructively, altering the scattering and final appearance.
(This is called the scattering of Mie This is different from Rayleigh scattering, which applies when particles are smaller than the wavelength of light, such as particles in the atmosphere Heavens, full of water vapor, are blue due to Rayleigh scatter Clouds, made water droplets, are white due to scattering Noodles.)
All of this physics is actually important for how things look. White layers made with titanium dioxide and some neutral absorbing light pigments will appear bluish if the coating particles are small and yellowish if they are large. The difference is the length of road light as it passes through and out of the surface. (And the fact is, Mie mathematics only applies to spherical particles.For the original color sciences on coatings such as paint, you need the Kubelka-Munk equation, which combines travel time through the whole layer.Calculus for color: This is the thing.)
All that should make you scream, okay, but what color? Because, of course, you can ask, What is the wavelength of light coming back from the surface? That is what the human senses feel, through the three types of receptors called rods, each of which is most responsive to different wavelengths of light.
But that’s not the whole story. In fact, what the brain then does with that information is to determine where it falls in two sets of choices: redness versus greenish and bluish versus yellowish. In trying to figure out how the brain assembles the colors of the world from basic and basic colors, the German physiologist Karl Ewald Hering (1834-1918) theorized that the most fundamental you can get is a combination of blue versus yellow and red versus green.
The color of the “opponent” leaves a shadow of each other in the eyes, the Vulture shows in 1878. And even stranger, though you see yellowish or bluish green, you never see red-green or blue-yellow – opponent” . “Nobody really believes that the so-called opponents of the Vulture are actually neurobiologists, scientists have been hunting down opponent structures in the brain for decades with limited success, but as a theory, that’s pretty great, because if you turn the two opposing gradients into four quadrants around two perpendicular axes, you can get almost any color that can be seen by the human eye.
Because we also want to know how bright or dark the colors are – how many acromatic colors the white and black they have – you can build another axis, perpendicular again to the other two, az stick right in the middle, for lightening.
Now you have three-dimensional colors: lightweight, and two axis color-opponents. Add a concentric circle that comes out of the light axis toward the edge of the color plane to symbolize saturation – more like a pastel toward the polar axis and clearer to the edge – and you can capture almost any visible color. This is the idea behind some commercial color systems, such as the Swedish Natural Color System. One again, the CIELAB color space (CIE being the Internationale de l’Eclairage Commission, or the International Commission on Information) is also close to the geometry of Vultures; L, a, and b are axes, and the color difference in them should map, geometrically, to the real difference that humans will perceive.
Wrap your mind around this for a second: space, a three-dimensional metaphor where each point is a particular color. The distance between the two points is the measured perception difference between the colors.
To be fair, CIELAB is actually better for colored lights (emitted light) than pigments (which absorb and reflect), and only about uniform. All the different color spaces only work for certain lighting conditions, certain field of view, ideal observers … and most are frayed at the edges, when quantitative jumps from color to color do not accurately represent the color that people see.
You can map colors in many ways, of course. You can use color and saturation for the color fields, for example, and then values - light or dark – for the z-axis and get across the rest of the universe. The field that studies the subject, psychophysics, has many, many books about that subject you want to read, and color researchers work in more accurate spaces. But they tend to be computational complex, and somewhat less elegant than the clean Euclidean geometry of the White-derived space.
You will also remember that I made a big deal of metal luster and pearlescent. They make things more complicated.
In 2000, a quantum chemist named Eric Kirchner decided to change jobs. He has worked for Azko Nobel, the world’s second largest paint company, and there is an opening at the company’s Color Research Laboratory. “I thought, color,” he said. “That’s a great topic.” So he became a researcher there, along with thousands of others. One of the things the lab does is make software that helps painters like Gonzalez find the recipe.
Kirchner has a more specific topic: sparkle. “The ‘coat effects’ like metallic and pearls, they change color depending on the angle you’re looking at, it’s already known,” Kirchner said. “We thought, well, it’s great to be able to measure from different angles but we also see texture, that’s not a uniform color. “The goniochromatic effect has a grain, a spark that affects how they appear.
“It really depends on lighting conditions. If you have direct sunlight, you really get a sparkling effect. If you have a cloudy sky, the sparkling effect will disappear and you get rough, “Kirchner said. “It sounds trivial now, but in literature before 2000, it was never taught like this.”
So his team started testing. They show a sample of people from different coatings. With no luminous effect reported at all, they call it zero. The bravest they can make, they give a score of 8. From there they can make a medium version and ask people to arrange it. “We created a set of 56 samples that are all the same color with different luster,” Kirchner said. “It took a long time. We work for months. ”
Finally they have eight panels that their tests specify not only increase the value of luster but also have the same distance from each other, speak with brilliant. That is, now they have metrics.
In 2007, they built an algorithm that understood all of these quantitative blingometry and taught it to a spectrophotometer, a device that can see colored surfaces and measure their properties – basically a sophisticated calibrated digital camera. This is a standard gadget now, named BYK-mac. (If you are wondering, BYK refers to one of the founders of BYK-Gardner, Heinrich Byk; mac is short for “multi-angle color.”)
So I asked Kirchner: Have you added a fourth dimension to the colorspace?
He said it was much worse than that. “The color depends on the angle, and usually you need three or five or six angles to characterize the color,” he said. “Six times three-dimensional color angle, which equals 18.”
OK so you